parts adapted from Jorge Moraleda

Turning it in: You’ll turn in a zip file via Canvas that contains (a) a pdf write-up of the answers to the specific questions described below, (b) all your code, and (c) the other items described below.

## Document similarity

Calculating document similarity is the first step in many text analytic tasks, including clustering and finding similar documents to a single one known to be of relevance. In this part of the assignment, you’ll compare different ways of computing document similarity.

1. Splitting, tokenization, normalization. In order to have a set of documents to calculate similarities between, split the classbios.txt file into one file per person. (Note that you can use regular expressions to do this.) Then, tokenize and normalize these files using any of the methods (in Lucene or CoreNLP) you used on the previous assignment. Next, remove stopwords and any words that contain non-alphabetic characters (e.g., puncutation or numbers), using any method you like. [No need to say anything about this problem in your write-up, but do include the code in your zip.]

2. Boolean similarity. Use the normalized, tokenized bio documents to create a binary term-document matrix, where each row represents a vocabulary item, each column represents a document, and each element is a 0 or 1. In this matrix, each document is represented by a binary vector. From this binary matrix, create a document similarity matrix, where cell i, j gives the similarity of documents i and j, and where similarity is given by the cosine between the document vectors: $$\dfrac{I \cdot J}{|I| |J|}$$. Save this matrix to a file boolean.txt, where values are separated by a space, and where the rows and columns are arranged in the same order they were given in classbios.txt. Do not include any row or column labels in this file. In your write-up, answer: Which three pairs of documents are the most similar? Which three pairs are the least similar?

3. tf-idf similarity. Use the normalized, tokenized bio documents to create a term-document matrix of raw frequencies. Then transform this raw frequency matrix into a tf-idf matrix by using the formula $$(1+\log(tf))(\log(\dfrac{N}{df}))$$ where $$tf$$ is the term’s raw frequency in this document, $$df$$ is the number of documents the term occurs in, and $$N$$ is the total number of documents. Now, again, convert this term-document matrix into a document similarity matrix in the same way as before and save it as tf_idf.txt, in the same format as before. In your write-up, answer: Which three pairs of documents are the most similar now? Which three pairs are the least similar? Does this more advanced method seem to be doing a better job than just using binary similarity? Why?

## Indexing and retrieval

On the last assignment, you used Lucene simply to tokenize and normalize text, but its main function is as a full industrial-strength indexing and retrieval library. Thus, indexing text using Lucene is very often the first step to doing analytics. In this part of the assignment, you’ll gain practice in using Lucene for indexing and retrieval.

1. Indexing. Index the wikipedia pages for countries and their capitals. This page contains links to every country and its capital.
• To accomplish this, first, create a Lucene index. Then, add the text from the wikipedia entry for each capital city and each country. Specifically, add one document to the index for each capital city you extract using four Lucene fields: city_name, country_name, city_text, and country_text.
• As in many cases in real-world analytics, there will be some special cases in which countries have more than one capital. Decide how to treat these cases and document it in your write-up. Also say how many capital cities you included, and how many countries.
• To download the webpages, you may need to use parts of Java (or python) you haven’t used before. For Java, this is a good introduction to working with URLs. In python, you’ll want to check out urllib.
• For specific examples of adding documents to a Lucene index, see the Lucene tutorial slides from class a couple of weeks ago and the Lucene in Action source code download. Of course, the Lucene javadocs will also be very useful.
• There’s no need to use any fancy html parsing libraries for this assignment, but you will need to strip out the html from the web pages before sending them on to an EnglishAnalyzer and indexing them. One convenient way to do this is to use the HTMLStripCharFilter class.
2. Retrieval. Use the index you just created to find all the capital cities whose wikipedia page (the city’s page, not the country’s page) contains each of the following, and report the results in your write-up.
• ‘Greek’ and ‘Roman’ but not ‘Persian’: Use a BooleanQuery for this. In addition to the Lucene docs, you might find this page a useful reference.
• ‘Shakespeare’, even if it’s misspelled: Use a FuzzyQuery for this.
• the words ‘located below sea level’ near each other: Use a PhraseQuery with a slop factor of 10. In addition to the Lucene docs, you might find this page a useful reference.
• an interesting query of your choice.
3. Latent Dirichlet Allocation. Lucene indexes can conveniently return a frequency-based term-document matrix, which can be fed into topic modeling algorithms such as LDA to provide insights into the major topics described in a corpus. This is what you’ll do for this final exercise.
• First, extract the term-document matrix from your index for the set of country pages (not the city pages). See this example.
• Use LDA to create a table with the 10 most frequent topics and the 10 most frequent words in each of them. Report these in your write-up. There are a huge number of LDA packages available to do this, including JGibbLDA for Java and lda for python. Use whichever you please. (Note that unless you set random seeds, these results will not be reproducible, since this is a random algorithm. But you are not required to set random seeds.)